Object oriented programming treats data as a critical element in the program development and these elements called objects. The objects- oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language which model organized around the objects. Oops allow decomposition of a problem with number of entities called objects.
In the objects oriented programming language, object refers to a specific type or “instance” of a class. Each object has a structure similar to other objects in the class, but each object can assign individual characteristics. Object can also call functions or methods. Basically, Objects are the run- time entities in the object oriented programming. It may represent a person, a place, class students, a bank account, a table of data or any items that the program is to be use.
Objects oriented programming has one of the programming buzzword today. These appears to be a great deal of interest and excitement among the software engineers in using Oops.
Some Features of object oriented programming:
It is emphasis the data rather than procedure.
In the Oops, programs are divided into objects.
Data structure are designed such they characterize the objects.
Functions that operate on the data of an object are tied together.
Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions.
Objects can communicate with each other through the functions.
The programming areas for application of Oops are-
- Real time systems,
- Objects oriented data base,
- Simulation and modeling,
- Artificial Intelligence
- Expert system
- Natural networks and parallel programming
- Hypertext, hypermedia
- Decision Support and office automation system
- CIM (computer Integrated Manufacturing) system,
- CAM (computer Aided Manufacturing) / CAD (Computer Aided design) system,
The most popular application of OOP has been the area of user interface design such as Windows. Most Windowing systems have been developed using the Oops technology.
Benefits of objects oriented programming:
- Through Inheritance features of objects oriented programming, we can create object for one program and it can easily be reused in the other programs.
- We can build program from the standard working module that communicate with one another.
- The principle of data hiding helps the programmer to build secure programs. And programmers can hide a particular part of code in the programme for security.
- It is easy to work partition in a project-based on objects.
- Large programs are very difficult to write, but in the object oriented programs programmer to go through an extensive planning phase, which makes better designing flow for programme.
- Object oriented system can be easily upgraded from small to large systems and its maintenance charge is very less.
- Object oriented system base software complexity can be easily managed.
- Object oriented programming leads to saving of development time and it providing higher productivity.